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PurpleHawk's Apache Gallery VI


Information Graciously donated by the "Fort Sam Houston Museum"


Fort Sill Guard House image belonging to Bidda Reed.


Geronimo Related Photos

Fort Sam Houston in Fall, 1886


The following photographs (except the one with Hadesty's name on the frame)
were taken by San Antonio photographer, E. K. Sturtevant, while Geronimo
and his band were confined at Fort Sam Houston's Quadrangle
(a supply depot with several acres of land enclosed by the building itself.)
They were kept in two rows of army tents facing each other that were
erected near the back (north) wall of the Quadrangle. They were not kept
in the Quadrangle's Clock Tower and the deer were not placed in the
Quadrangle to feed them. They ate soldiers rations, primarily consisting of beef.

The group was here for only about six weeks, most of September into October,
while the Federal government decided on their status. The Territory of Arizona
said they were captured murderers; the US Army said they were 
prisoners-of-war.The government decided that the precedent in US law was
 that Indians tribes were sovereign nations, and that when nations went to war,
 the acts of violence between them was an act or war, not murder.If the
decision had been otherwise, they group would have been returned to Arizona
 for a civil trial, where Geronimo would have undoubtedly been hanged.
As it was, they were treated as POWs (remember this is before either
the Geneva or Hague Conventions.)

The group was quite the attraction, but the casual public was not
allowed into the Quadrangle to ogle them. The Joske brothers,
owners of the local department store, were allowed to bring a wagon
of goods into the Quadrangle to sell to the group (which may explain why
many of the men are wearing white trousers and the same striped shirt).
Geronimo was taken on at least one tour of San Antonio while he was here.

Based on the list of people in Geronimo's group, as reported by the Post Commander,
General David S. Stanley,
I have tried to put names to faces the best I can.
If I do not say (probably), I'm pretty sure who the individual was.

Geronimo leaning against wall of the the Quadrangle, 1886


Geronimo standing in line with three other people. Left to right (probably) Hunlonah, Nohchlon (Geronimo,s daughter-in-law) and baby, (probably the 19-year-old girl in the group), Geronimo


Ahnandia and his wife, Tah-das-te, Quadrangle, 1886


(Probably) Ha-o-zinne, Natchez wife, and Bi-ya-neta. There is a person hiding in the tent. Interpreter, Tex Whaley, in a newspaper article, mentions a woman with a cut nose (punishment for adultery), who hid in the tents. Quadrangle, 1886


Members of the group that surrendered with Geronimo and the Apache Scouts that helped apprehend them. Possible identifications, left to right:
1. Unknown 2. Yahnozha 3. 20-year-old 4. Zhonne 5. Unknown
6. Unknown 7. Skayocarne (also called Keneseah) 8. Unknown


Ahnandia and interpreter George Wratten. These two were blood brothers. Wratten later married an Apache woman and they had several children. They divorced and he re-married an Anglo girl and they had children. Both families are in touch with each other.


Geronimo standing in front of several other men, tents in background, Quadrangle, 1886. There are at least three different versions of this image. Look for different positions of the men in the background, especially the man in the tent to the right. The two men laying down next to Natchez are Ahnandia and George Wratten. Man with his back to camera might be Zhonne.


Apache Gallery

Apache Gallery II

Apache Gallery III

Apache Gallery IV

Apache Gallery V

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Created June 24, 2005- Updated October 10, 2008 by Who Else....PurpleHawk width="17">